If the Sun is essentially an electrical phenomenon, as seems to be the case, and it is also a fairly typical star, then all stars should exhibit properties that are consistent with the Electric Sun (ES) model. Do they? Let us extrapolate the ES model and compare it to what we have observed about stars.
Add A New Horizontal Axis ScaleIn the ES model the important variable is: current density (Amps/sq m) at the star's photospheric surface. If a star's current density increases, the arc discharges on its surface (photospheric granules) get hotter, change color (away from red, toward blue-white), and get brighter. The absolute luminosity of a star, therefore, depends on two main variables: current density at its effective surface, and its size (the star's diameter).
Therefore, let us add a new scale to the horizontal axis of the HR diagram: 'Current Density at the Surface of each Star'. Consider moving from the lower right of the HR diagram toward the left. In so doing we are moving in the direction of increasing current density at the star's surface.
Red and Brown DwarfsThe first region on the lower right of the diagram is where the current density has such a low value that double layers (DLs) (photospheric granules) are not needed by the plasma surrounding the (anode) star. This is the region of the brown and red "dwarfs" and giant gas planets. Recent discoveries of extremely cool L - Type and T - Type dwarfs has required the original diagram to be extended to the lower right (See below). These 'stars' have extremely low absolute luminosity and temperature.
|Notice that the surface
temperature of the T - Type dwarfs is in the range of 1000 K or
less! For comparison purposes recall that some
points on the surface of Venus are in the range of 900 K.
T - Type spectra have features due mostly to Methane - they
resemble Jupiter's spectrum. The plasma that constitutes a
star of this type is in its 'normal glow' range - or perhaps,
even the 'dark current' range. If all stars are indeed
powered by a nuclear fusion reaction as is claimed, with the T
dwarfs we must be in the 'cold fusion' range!
Indeed, for fusion reactions to occur, standard theory
requires that the temperature in a star's core must reach at
least three million K. And because, in the accepted model,
core temperature rises with gravitational pressure, the star
must have a minimum mass of about 75 times the mass of the
planet Jupiter, or about 7 percent of the mass of our sun.
Many of the dwarfs do not meet these requirements. One
mainstream astrophysicist, realizing this, has said that these
dwarfs must be powered by 'gravitational collapse'.
The orbiting X-ray telescope, Chandra, recently discovered an X-ray flare being emitted by a brown dwarf (spectral class M9). This poses an additional problem for the advocates of the stellar fusion model. A star this cool should not be capable of X-ray flare production.
However, in the ES model, there are no minimum temperature or mass requirements because the star is inherently electrical to start with. In the ES model (if a brown/red dwarf is operating near the upper boundary of the dark current mode), a slight increase in the level of total current impinging on that star will move it into the normal glow mode. This transition will be accompanied by a rapid change in the voltage rise across the plasma of the star's atmosphere. Maxwell's equations tell us that such a change in voltage can produce a strong dynamic E-field and a strong dynamic magnetic field. If they are strong enough, dynamic EM fields can produce X-rays. Another similar phenomenon can occur if a star makes the transition from normal glow to arc mode.
As we progress leftward in the HR diagram, at first the plotted points move steeply upward; we enter the spectral M range where some arc tufting becomes necessary to sustain the star's electrical discharge.
As current density increases, tufts (plasma in the arc discharge mode) cover more and more of the surface of each star, and its luminosity increases sharply – plasma arcs are extremely bright compared to plasma in its normal glow mode. You can look directly at neon signs but not at electric arc welders. This accounts for the steepness of the HR curve in the M region – a slight increase in current density produces a large increase in luminosity. As we move upward and toward the left in the diagram, stars have more and more complete coats of photospheric arcs (tufting).
A case in point – NASA recently discovered a star, half of whose surface was "covered by a sunspot". A more informative way to say this would have been that "Half of this star's surface is covered by photospheric arcing." The present controversy about what the difference is between a giant gas planet and a brown dwarf is baseless. They are members of a continuum – it is simply a matter of what the level of current density is at their surfaces. NASA's discovery supplies the missing link between the giant gas planets and the fully tufted stars. In fact, the term "proto-star" may be more descriptive than "giant gas planet".
Main Sequence StarsContinuing toward the left, beyond the "knee of the curve", all these stars (K through B) are completely covered with tufts (have complete photospheres), their luminosity no longer grows as rapidly as before. But, the farther to the left we go (the higher the current density), the brighter the tufts become, and so the stars' luminosities do continue to increase. The situation is analogous to turning up the current in an electric arc welding machine. The increased brightness of the arcs accounts for the upward slope of the line toward the left. Mathematically we have the situation where the variable plotted on the horizontal axis (current density) is also one of the factors in the quantity plotted on the vertical axis (luminosity). The more significant this relationship is, the more closely the plot will approach a 45 degree straight line.
[Reminder: Our progression from right toward the left is not a description of one star evolving in time - we are just moving across the diagram from one static point (star) to another.]
That the stars do not all fall precisely on a line, but have some dispersion above and below the line, is due to their variation in size. The relatively straight portion of the HR diagram is called the 'main sequence'. This nomenclature gives a false impression, that stars move around 'sequentially' in the HR plot. The HR diagram is a static scatter plot, not a sequence.
White and Blue StarsWhen we get to the upper left end of the main sequence, what kind of stars are these? This is the region of O type, blue-white, high temperature (35,000+ K) stars. As we approach the far upper-left of the HR diagram (region of highest current density), the stars are under extreme electrical stress - too many Amps per sq. meter. Their absolute luminosities approach 100,000 times the Sun's. Even farther out to the upper left is the region of Wolf-Rayet stars. Extreme electrical stress can lead to a such a star's splitting into parts, perhaps explosively. Such explosions are called novae. The splitting process is called fissioning. A characteristic of Wolf-Rayet stars is that they are losing mass rapidly.
Wal Thornhill once said:
"….. internal electrostatic forces prevent stars from collapsing gravitationally and occasionally cause them to "give birth" by electrical fissioning to form companion stars and gas giant planets. Sudden brightening, or a nova outburst marks such an event. That elucidates why stars commonly have partners and why most of the giant planets so far detected closely orbit their parent star."If a sphere of fixed volume splits into two smaller (equal sized) spheres, the total surface area of the newly formed pair will be about 26% larger than the area of the original sphere. (If the split results in two unequally sized spheres, the increase in total area will be something less than 26%.) So, to reduce the current density it is experiencing, an electrically stressed, blue-white star may explosively fission into two or more stars. This provides an increase in total surface area and so results in a reduced level of current density on the (new) stars' surfaces. Each of two new (equal sized) stars will experience only 80% of the previous current density level and so both will jump to new locations farther to the lower-right in the HR diagram.
A possible example of two equal sized offspring may be the binary pair called Y Cygni. This is a pair of giant O or B type stars that orbit each other in a period of 2.99 days. Each star is some 5 million miles in diameter and 5000 times as luminous as our Sun - absolute magnitudes about -4.5. They are some 12 million miles apart (less than 2.5 times their diameters!). Their masses are 17.3 and 17.1 times the mass of our Sun.
If the members of the resulting binary pair turn out to be unequal in size, the larger one will probably have the larger current density - but still lower than the original value. (This assumes that the total charge and total driving current to the original star distributes itself onto the new stars proportionally to their masses.) In this case, the smaller member of the pair might have such a low value of current density as to drop it, abruptly, to "brown dwarf" or even "giant planet" status. That may be how giant gas planets get born (and are in close proximity to their parents).
There was an interesting statement made in this regard in the Jan. 1, 2001 issue of Science Now magazine (p.4). "Astronomers are scratching their heads over a strange new planetary system. A team discovered a huge gas ball -- apparently a failed star called a brown dwarf -- circling a star that holds another planet in its sway. But no one understands how something so massive as a brown dwarf could form so close to a normal star with a planetary companion." This was in an article called "An awkward trio disturbs astronomers" by G. Schilling.
The final distribution of mass and current density is sensitive to the mechanics of the splitting process. Such a process can only be violent - possibly resulting in a nova eruption. Some mass may be lost to the plasma cloud that later can appear as a planetary nebula or nova-remnant that surrounds the binary pair. If the charge on the original star was highly concentrated on or near its surface, and the fissioning process is similar to the peeling off of a onion's skin, then most of that original charge (and current) may end up on the offspring star that is constituted only of the skin of the original star. In this way the smaller, rather than the larger of the two members of the resulting binary pair, can be the hotter one. In any event, both stars will move to different positions in the HR diagram from where their parent was located.
astronomy attempts to describe how stars 'age' (run out of
nuclear fuel) and slowly migrate, taking hundreds of thousands
of years to do so, tracing paths from one location on the HR
diagram to another (the star going from one spectral class to
another). The paths that stars 'must take' are, of course,
completely predicated on the assumption that stars are fueled by
the various stages of nuclear fusion of the lightest elements.
The ES model does not make that assumption. Humans have not been around long enough to actually observe any stars making the predicted slow migrations from one place on the HR diagram to another. So, at present, slow "stellar evolution" is another one of those complicated theoretical constructs that live brightly in the minds of astrophysicists without any observational evidence of their actual existence.
Examples That Falsify (Disprove) The Accepted Stellar Evolution Process
So now there are at least four prime examples of stars that do not evolve according to the accepted thermonuclear model of how stars are powered. These are stars that falsify the conventional understanding of stellar life cycles. All of them act in a manner predicted by the Electric Star hypothesis.
In the Electric Star version of "stellar evolution" things can happen quickly. If the fusion model were correct, it would take hundreds of thousands of years for a star to change from one place in the HR diagram to another. It would not be observed within a "human lifetime". It didn't take FG Sagittae hundreds of thousands of years to "run down." The star V838 Monocerotis has moved half way across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram in a few months. Migrating across the HR diagram can happen very rapidly - and apparently does! How many such counter-examples does it take for astrophysicists to realize their stellar fusion theory has been falsified?
diffuse group in the upper right hand corner of the HR diagram
are stars which are cool (have low values of current density
powering them) but are luminous and so are thought to be very
large. They are highly luminous only
because of their apparent size. And that size may well be
due to having a huge corona rather than an inherently large
diameter. At any rate, these are the 'red giants'.
They are not necessarily any older than any other star.
Notice that some are relatively quite cool - in the range of
1000 K. How do stars at this low a temperature maintain an
internal fusion reaction? The
simple answer is: They cannot! And they do not! And
beneath an extended diffuse corona, they may be quite small
White DwarfsSimilarly, the group in the lower left hand corner have very low absolute luminosity but are extremely hot. The ES model simply explains them as being very small stars that are experiencing very high current densities. These are the "white dwarfs." Although most of them are concentrated in the lower-left corner of the diagram, the white dwarf group actually extends thinly across the bottom of the diagram. Thus the name white dwarf is a kind of misnomer. The shape of this thin grouping begins to drop off steeply at its (cooler) right end much as the main sequence does.
astronomer has been quoted as saying:
But then, why are these
relatively cool stars called "white"? One presumes it is
only because they seem to be members of the grouping in the HR
diagram that was originally given that name.
Spectral Lines in Various Types of StarsIn a paper entitled “Stellar Spectra” (Aeon, Vol. V, No. 5, Jan. 2000, p. 37.) the late Earl R. Milton, Professor of Physics, University of Lethbridge reported on research he had performed on spectral line broadening in 1971 while at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory in Vancouver, British Columbia. This work provides strong evidence in support of the Electric Sun model.
If a relatively cool gas comes between a wide-band light source and an observer, absorption lines will appear in the light's spectrum. These lines arise because of the absorption of (light) energy by the atoms of the gas. Electrons in those atoms jump from lower to higher discrete quantum energy states - they get the energy to make that jump from the light (having exactly the frequency that corresponds to that energy gap) that is passing through the gas. Each element in the gas produces its own signature pattern of lines. By recognizing the line patterns, we can identify the gas that is causing those lines. This method is used to discern what elements and molecules are present in the upper atmospheres of stars.
If, on the other hand, a sufficiently strong electric current is passed through a gas, the gas itself will emit a light spectrum in which only a few discrete colors (frequencies) appear. These are called emission lines. They are located precisely at those wavelengths (frequencies) at which that same gas produces absorption lines as described in the previous paragraph.
The spectra of most stars are heavily dominated by absorption lines. Spectra from the cooler stars (such as types G and K) are dominated by molecular bands arising from oxides (like ZrO and TiO) and from compounds of carbon like CH, CN, CO, and C2. Stars like the Sun (type G) show “metal” absorption lines. Astronomers call any element heavier than Helium a “metal”. In fact the Sun shows the presence of 68 of the known elements. The spectra of hot O and B type stars show few lines, and what lines they do have appear quite blurred or “broadened”. There are a few possible causes of this broadening.
If the absorbing gas is in a magnetic field, each line may split, symmetrically, into multiple, closely spaced lines. This is called the Zeeman effect - named for its discoverer, Pieter Zeeman (1865-1943).
If the gas is in an electric E-field, then lines split unsymmetrically - this is called the Stark effect named for Johannes Stark (1874-1957). These secondary lines are very closely spaced in frequency (wavelength) and so the effect is sometimes called line-broadening or blurring. A most important property is that the degree of Stark (electric field) broadening depends on the atomic mass of the affected gas. The lines of heavy elements are only slightly broadened whereas those of lighter atoms and ions are quite smeared out. This effect is not noted in Zeeman (magnetic field) broadening.
As we progress from right to left up the “main sequence” in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram – from the less electrically stressed stars toward those experiencing higher current input, we see an increasing broadening of spectral lines. In fact at the upper left end (O-type stars) there is so much blurring that we can distinguish very little structure in the line spectra. Is this caused by the increasing strengths of the E-fields in the stars' DLs as electrical stress increases? And, is increased E-field strength the only possible explanation for this line broadening? Milton states that two pieces of evidence strongly suggest that the answer is yes.
highly stressed B-type stars:
The usual mainstream explanation of line broadening is that the star must be rotating rapidly – light from the limb going away from us is red shifted, and light from the limb coming at us is blue shifted – the total effect being to smear out the line widths. BUT, if that were the true explanation, the lines from hydrogen should be no more smeared out than those from calcium. Both of these observations (1 and 2 above) strongly suggest that it is the presence of a strong electric field that is selectively broadening the spectral lines in B-type stars.
There is no simple explanation of these spectral effects via the (non-electrical) thermonuclear core model. So, let us consider to what degree this phenomenon – the existence of spectral absorption lines and their selective broadening – is consistent with the Electric Sun model.
In the Electric Sun model it is clear that the photosphere is the site of a strong plasma arc discharge. This produces the Sun's continuous visible light spectrum. Immediately above this in the Sun’s atmosphere there is the Double Layer (DL) in which an intense, outwardly directed electric field resides. It is within this strong E-field that many heavy elements are created by z-pinch fusion. Recall that the strong E-field dethermalizes the ions in that region and thus it is the (relatively) coolest layer of the Sun's atmosphere. Light that originates in the photosphere passes through the relatively cool, newly formed heavier elements in the DL. These heavier elements selectively absorb energy from the light's spectrum and thus the absorption lines are created. In fact they are created in exactly the place where the Sun's E-field is strongest. Thus we have the ideal situation for selective broadening of those lines due to the Stark effect.
In those instances wherein we see emission lines in a star’s spectrum we may speculate that, just as in the laboratory, the easiest way to generate them is by passing a strong electric current through a tenuous gas cloud. For example, type W (Wolf-Rayet) stars are under such intense electrical input that they are hotter even than type O stars. They are located to the left of the top of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. They typically show strong emission lines in their spectra. Since these stars experience stronger electrical currents than any other type star, there is ample probability that any tenuous coronal gases will be excited by such currents to produce emission lines.
At the other end of the HR diagram, type M (relatively cool) stars also sometimes exhibit spectral emission lines. Can we explain this via the Electric Sun model as well? Consider the star Betelgeuse – a type M red 'giant'. The average density of Betelgeuse is less than one ten thousandth of the density of the air we breathe. A star of such tenuous nature has often been called a 'red hot vacuum'. The outer surface of this tenuous sphere (the radius of which is larger than the orbit of Jupiter from the Sun) has been found to have three bright areas of photospheric tufting above which we would expect to find DLs wherein z-pinch fusion may occur. It is from this source that the absorption lines in the M-type spectra come. But, in addition, Betelgeuse is surrounded by a coronal plasma that extends out several hundred radii from the surface of the star. This corona is even less dense than the star itself. Thus we have a gigantic gas cloud through which (according to the Electric Star model) electric current is passing – an ideal situation for the production of spectral emission lines.
once again, in the case of stellar emission and absorption
lines and their selective broadening, we observe a stellar
phenomenon that is more consistent with the Electric Sun model
than it is with the “fusion core” model (in which, of course,
no mention is made of electric fields).
I and II Stars There
are many ways to categorize stars. While observing the
Andromeda Galaxy, M 31, astronomer Walter Baade discovered that
he could distinguish between two general types of stars in that
object. He called them Population I and Population II.
Population I stars are located in the arms of the galaxy. They are generally like our Sun; they are bright; are often blue giants, and are typically members of the "main sequence" of the HR diagram; there is usually lots of nebulosity, dust, and gas in their vicinity. Mainstream astronomers call them "young" stars.
Population II stars are not found in the arms, but rather, in the nucleus of the galaxy and in globular clusters that are situated around its periphery. These are less luminous, cooler, with fewer heavy elements; many are red and yellow giants; there is almost no dust and gas in their vicinity. Mainstream astronomers call these stars "old".
So we see that there is very roughly a lower-left half (Population I), upper-right half (Population II) partitioning of the HR diagram. Therefore, from the Electric Star point of view, we note that the stars in Population I are more heavily electrically stressed than those in Population II. In the next page we discuss the general shape of galaxies and then will be able to point out that the usual physical locations of these two star types in a typical galaxy are vastly different in electrical activity. The arms (where Population I type stars are usually located) are the focus of strong Birkeland current densities.
Blue StragglersUp until recently no (Population I) O or B type stars were observed in globular clusters. It was thought that all stars in any given globular cluster were of a similar age (old - Population II). Therefore, it came as a big shock when it was discovered that there were some blue "stragglers" (stars that hadn't "aged properly") in certain clusters. It was said, in awe, that these stars were "rejuvenated stars that glow with the blue light of young stars"! "Stellar evolution" doesn't seem to be working too well in these cases.
Another example of "stellar evolution" that is difficult to explain via the H-He fusion reaction is that in recent years, the centers of elliptical galaxies (the other typical location of Population II stars) have been found to emit unexpectedly high amounts of blue and ultraviolet light. Elliptical galaxies (and the stars in them) are thought to be quite old. How, then, can there be so many "young" blue stars in them? One mainstream answer is that some dying old stars suddenly decide to burn the Helium they had been previously producing – or we hear (as always) the mantra that perhaps there were "collisions between stars".
Stellar densities in galactic nuclei are typically 50 - 60 stars per cubic light year. Each star occupies, say, 1/60 cubic LY. The cube root of 1/60 is approximately 0.25 - so, each star is 1/4 light year from its neighbor. (Remember Burnham's model: Two specks of dust 1/100 inch in diameter separated by a distance of 1/4 MILE.) What is the probability of their colliding?
From the ES point of
view, any star can move quickly across the HR diagram if its
electrical environment changes. Anyone who has seen the
aurora's plasma curtains moving and folding in the polar sky
realizes that Birkeland current filaments are not fixed,
static, things. They move around. If the galactic
Birkeland currents move around, it is likely they will move
relative to some stars - either increasing or decreasing the
current densities these stars experience. A blue star is
just one that is experiencing the full brunt of a strong
Birkeland current. "Blue stragglers" aren't stragglers at all.
They are just blue.
Variable StarsWhen I was researching topics for this article, Wal Thornhill said to me,
"Have a look at variable stars, particularly bursters, where I think you will find the brightness curve is like that of lightning with a sudden rise time and exponential decay. Some stars are regular and others irregular. The irregular ones seem to average the power over the bursts. When they are more frequent, the energy is less per burst. If there is a long latency, the next burst is more powerful. It's the kind of thing you would expect from an electrical circuit when the trigger level is variable and the power input constant.Following Wal's suggestion, I looked at the recent Hubble image of Mira itself, the flagship star of that class of variable stars. Mira's image reveals a huge plasma emission on one side of the star. The official explanation includes the words, " Mira A is a red giant star undergoing dramatic pulsations, causing it to become more than 100 times brighter over the course of a year. …. Mira can extend to over 700 times the size of our Sun, and is only 400 light-years away. The …. photograph taken by the Hubble Space Telescope shows the true face of Mira. But what are we seeing? The unusual extended feature off the lower left of the star remains somewhat mysterious. Possible explanations include gravitational perturbation and/or heating from Mira's white dwarf star companion." [Italics added.]
Mira has a white dwarf companion, just as Wal suggested was likely. So, a much better possible explanation of its pulsating output is that an electrical discharge is taking place between Mira and its companion, much like a relaxation oscillator. It's not really "mysterious" at all.
There are many examples of unequally sized, closely spaced, binary pairs that are variable and emit frequent nova-like explosions. The list includes:
- The Crab Nebula
The shape of this pulsar centered object is exactly that of an electrical homopolar motor - generator.
Supernova Remnant G11.2-0.3On August 6, 2000, and October 15, 2000, the orbiting X-ray telescope Chandra discovered a pulsar at the geometric center of the supernova remnant known as G11.2-0.3. This observation provides strong evidence that the pulsar was formed in the supernova of 386 AD, which was also witnessed by Chinese astronomers. The official description of the image included the words:
"The Chandra observations of G11.2-0.3 have also, for the first time, revealed the bizarre appearance of the pulsar wind nebula at the center of the supernova remnant. Its rough cigar-like shape is in contrast to the graceful arcs observed around the Crab and Vela pulsars. However, together with those pulsars, G11.2-0.3 demonstrates that such complicated structures are ubiquitous around young pulsars."Upon examination, the image of the central star reveals that it is at the center of a 'cigar shaped' plasma discharge, not a 'bizarre wind nebula' (whatever that is). Although no binary companion has (yet) been found, the presence of the observed plasma discharge makes one suspect it is only a matter of time.
Each new discovery of a binary pair of stars, one of which is either a variable star or pulsar, at the center of a nova remnant, is one more piece of evidence that Juergens' electric star model and Thornhill's theory of the fissioning of those electric stars are both valid.
Electric Star EvolutionIn the Electric Star hypothesis, there is no reason to attribute youth to one spectral type over another. We conclude that a star's location on the HR diagram only depends on its size and the electric current density it is presently experiencing. If, for whatever reason, the strength of that current density should change, then the star will change its position on the HR diagram - perhaps, like FG Sagittae, abruptly. Otherwise, no movement from one place to another on that plot is to be expected. And its age remains indeterminate regardless of its mass or spectral type. This is disquieting in the sense that we are now confronted by the knowledge that our own Sun's future is not as certain as is predicted by mainstream astronomy. We cannot know whether the Birkeland current presently powering our Sun will increase or decrease, nor how long it will be before it does so.
SummaryA fresh look at the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, unencumbered by the assumption that all stars must be internally powered by the thermonuclear fusion reaction, reveals an elegant correspondence between this plot and the Electric Star model proposed by Ralph Juergens and extended by Earl Milton. In fact the correspondence is better than it is with the standard thermonuclear model. The details in the shape of the HR diagram are exactly what the tufted electric star model predicts they should be. The observed actions of nova-like variable stars, pulsars, the anomalies in the line spectra of B-type stars, and the high frequency of occurrence of binary pairs of stars are all in concordance with Thornhill's Electrical Universe theory, his stellar fissioning concept, and the Electric Star model as well. Completely mysterious and unexplained from the thermonuclear model point of view is the 'impossible' evolutionary behavior of FG Sagittae and V838 Monocerotis. Yet these phenomena are perfectly understandable using the ES model. We eagerly await NASA's next 'mysterious discovery' to further strengthen the case for the Electric Star hypothesis.
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